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Strategies for managing diseases in non-native shrimp populations

Strategies for managing diseases in non-native shrimp populations

Cock, J., Salazar, M. and Rye, M., 2015

The global shrimp aquaculture industry is largely based on Litopenaeus vannamei, with Asian countries accounting for the main part of the production.  The current strategies for disease management in Asia, a region to which the species is not native, emphasize exclusion and eradication with strict quarantine and importation protocol have not been effective in controlling disease epidemics. New diseases have been introduced on illegal importations; commercial populations of shrimp are derived from imported SPF stocks susceptible to endemic diseases; and local breeding programs are based on populations that are not resistant to a range of diseases. The sector depends largely on broodstock poorly adapted to local conditions and repeated disease epidemics have occurred.


This paper discusses these challenges and proposes revised strategies for disease management which should concentrate on: (i) minimizing the risk of introduction of new diseases to the region; (ii) the development of populations more resistant to endemic diseases and (iii) sanitary practices minimizing the likelihood of serious epidemics and delay infection, but not depending on attempts to eradicate diseases already present.

 

This can be implemented by:

(i) applying strict quarantine procedures for diseases not reported in the region whilst making the processes sufficiently agile to reduce incentives for illegal introductions;

(ii) eliminating the requirement for standard rigid protocols for importations and tailoring the protocols to be in accordance with the disease situation of both the country of origin and destination;

(iii) increasing the genetic variation available within Asia;

(iv) establishing selection programs within the region that permit reincorporation of animals exposed to disease into the breeding nucleus; and

(v) establish propagation systems that provide growers with high health status stocks without requiring overly strict certification of facilities as SPF.

 

Full reference to the article: Cock, J., Salazar, M. and Rye, M., 2015. Strategies for Managing Diseases in non-native Shrimp Populations. Reviews in Aquaculture (2015) 0, 1–16. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/raq.12132

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